Typical Domestic Well Installation Process
The following represents a basic and concise step by step well system installation process:
1. Request cost proposals from at least 3 water well contractors. Beware of Low Lump Sum bids that do not list material and services provided. Make sure bids are compatible i.e. -- same size water tank and submersible pump. Compare insurance carried by each contractor. Make sure contractor has pollution liability coverage. The low bid is not always the best contractor.
2. Choose your contractor. At this point the contractor will ask you for a copy of your plot plan which is needed to complete NJDEP Well Permit Application.
3. The drilling contractor will submit application to State. (Allow 7-10 working days for State permit processing.) In emergency situations (i.e. dry well) State permits can be obtained same day.
4. Once contractor receives approved State well permit application, county and township permits can be obtained.
5. With permits in place, drilling can initiate.
6. The drilling commences with advancing a 10" diameter borehole to a depth of 60' below ground surface.
7. Next , 6" schedule 40 steel casing is installed in 10" borehole.
8. Next , the annular opening between the casing and borehole is filled with a cement slurry to create a seal that would eliminate surface water infiltration. The drilling contractor is responsible for coordinating casing inspection with local health department.
9. Next , a 6" diameter borehole is advanced from the bottom of the casing to an adequate water producing fracture. This depth will vary depending on the geological bedrock formation encountered. During your initial conversations with the drilling contractor, ask questions such as, how deep do you think my well will be, what bedrock formation will be encountered, have you installed any wells in my area.
10. Once adequate water is encountered, the drilling rig & crew will demobilize.
11. Next , the contractor will discuss the characteristics of the well with the owner, ie well yield, well depth. This discussion will incorporate pump selection matching the pump size with expected facility demands and yield of the well.
12. Next , a pump crew and equipment are mobilized to site to initiate pump installation work.
13. Next , pump crew installs pump in well, runs water and electric lines from well to house, installs water tank. Sometimes the drilling contractor will provide excavation services for water and electric line trench.
14. Next , the homeowner has to get their licensed plumber to connect discharge of water tank to trunk line of house and licensed electrician to run power from circuit breaker panel to pump pressure switch. The well contractor has the expertise to complete these activities; unfortunately, the regulators want the prospective trades to complete the work.
15. Next , after the plumbing is completed, the homeowner or contractor will schedule a certified water testing laboratory to pick up water sample for analysis. For NJ residences, a "private well testing act" analysis is required. Some townships require additional testing.
16. Next , upon receipt of water analysis report, the homeowner will get occupancy permit if all parameters pass or contract with conditioning equipment contractor to address the parameters that failed.
Please Note: Local codes and certain geologies may alter the aforementioned sequence. For example, some townships required that a yield test be conducted on the well to make sure that the well is adequate for the facility it supplies before issuing a building permit.